The 20th century started with the same euphoria as the 19th finished... But from these heights, decline soon set in. By 1914 the 'War to end all Wars' - followed by yet another war - altered the national and local perspective.

The period between the two wars saw a general strike, a depression and a considerable decline in agriculture: the grazing lands of Boxmoor became run down and overgrown. The new town was created after the Second World War.

One of the Trust's meadows, where Kodak later stood, was exchanged for land at Chaulden Meadows and the Water Gardens were partly built on Trust land. The Trust Estate, from being an essential part of the economy by providing grazing land for a relatively small rural community, was now becoming a major amenity asset for a large urban settlement.

The Hemel Hempstead Town Cricket Club was established in 1850 when ground was prepared for cricket on part of the moor. The Boxmoor Cricket Club was founded in 1857 and the Golf Club in 1890. The Hemel Hempstead (Camelot) Rugby club, who play on Chaulden Meadow, are one of the more recent sports clubs to use Trust amenity land.

The demand for grazing declined to such an extent that the Trust established its own herd of Pedigree Belted Galloway cattle to control and maintain the pastures.

The 67 beneficiaries of 1594 had now expanded to approximately 80,000, represented by the 12 elected Trustees.

Further Roughdown and Gee's Meadow were acquired by the Trust in 1993 in exchange for land lost to the A41 by-pass development.